Segmen 17, 9, 6, 5 cm

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Luas dibawah Dua kurva dengan GeoGebra

Untuk menghitung luas dibawah dua kurva atau fungsi, kita bisa menggunakan perintah Integral lihat di bagian Perintah-Perintah atau akses Bantuan.

Integral[fungsi f, fungsi g, angka a, angka b]
Integral tertentu dari perbedaan fungsi f(x) - g(x) dari nilai a ke nilai b. Contohnya:
Integral[f(x), fungsi g(x), 1, 2]
Dalam animasi di bawah ini, semua parameter fungsi dan batas-batas fungsi dibuat dinamis dengan bantuan slider/Luncuran. Silahkan anda explorasi contoh berikut dengan menggeser nilai a, b, c,  k, l, m, n, v, atau w.

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The ADDIE Instructional Design Model

Reviewing Indonesian Teachers Training

There are two types of teacher training that conducted by 12 P4TKs and supported by 30 LPMPs, namely face-to-face trainings and e-training. The allocated budget for teacher training in 12 P4TKs is about 180 billion rupiahs (Ditjen PMPTK, 2009). According to national standard of budgeting for 100 hours training, face-to-face training unit cost is about 2 million rupiahs per teacher per training and for e-training is about 3,5 million rupiahs per teacher per training. Thus every year the Ditjen PMPTK will conduct teacher training for about 100,000 teachers per year, so it is believe that it will take more than ten years for disseminating new curriculum standard or teaching methodology to more than a million teachers.

Face-to-face training is conducted either on campus or off campus involving participants from several provinces. This training has several patterns such as 50 hours, 100 hours, 200 hours, and 600 hours which every training group is followed by about 30 participants. For instance, P4TK TK & PLB is able to conduct 50 hours on campus training followed by two groups of 30 participants. On the other hand, e-training is off-campus conducted involving participant from almost all 30 provinces. This training has a specific pattern which is 100 hour for academic writing guidance. The P4TK which has been developing and conducting e-training with national coverage is only P4TK TK & PLB involving more than 5000 participants a year.

Besides unit cost of training and participants, there is an extrinsic factor which is government policy about education quality improvement throughout teacher certification that gives profession incentive up to 100% of main salary to accredited teachers. Obviously, this policy will lead the increase of the national education budget that gives direct implication to the teacher training budget in the future because of limited foreign exchange reserves. It is believe that if global economic crisis will still remain for the next five years, then there will be teacher training budget crisis.

This over viewing about Indonesian teacher training and budgeting condition encourage us to make a breakthrough action to endorse teachers’ quality improvement throughout training in the limited budget condition. In the other words, we should develop teacher training model that has optimum both units cost and number of participant. We can combine the positive aspects of the face-to-face training and e-training respectively, which are the low face-to-face training unit cost and the relative high number of e-training participants, to establish an optimum training model. The convergence face-to-face training and e-training which is called blended training comes from blended learning concept.

P4TK TK & PLB is a P4TK that takes care kindergarten and special needs school teachers

Ditjen PMPTK (2009). Rencana Kerja Anggaran – Kementrian Lembaga Ditjen PMPTK. Government Budgeting System, Software, Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Anggaran.


Indonesia is a big country with a population of more than 220 million which 3,423,946 of them are teachers (Ditjen PMPTK, 2010). There are 42 technical institutions (12 P4TKs and 30 LPMPs scattered over 33 provinces dealing with teacher training as training providers under the General Directorate of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel (Dijen PMPTK) - National Education Department. There are two types of training conducted by them, namely face-to-face training and e-training. A face-to-face training has smaller unit cost of training rather than e-training, but an e-training involves much bigger participants rather than face-to-face training involves. All the training is funded by the national budget allocated for National Education Department. On the other hand, government has a policy to improve education quality throughout teacher certification which gives profession incentive up to 100% of main salary to accredited teachers. So that there may be a crisis of education budget for teacher training in the future because of limited national budget and increase of budget for teachers’ incentive.

P4TK is a technical unit as a centre of development and empowerment of teachers that has a study field specialization
LPMP is technical unit as an institution of education quality assurance that lies in 30 provinces in Indonesia

Ditjen PMPTK (2010). Laporan berdasarkan status nuptk, retrieved 22 April 2010 from

E-Tivities - Stage 1: Access

Accessible Website

Here are some examples of accessible website:
 Sample of simple and consistent navigation

 Sample skip-to-navigation link

 Sample of invisible skip-to-navigation link

Reading 10

Takagi, H., Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., & Maeda, J. (2004). Accessibility designer: Visualizing Usability for the Blind. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility. Retrieved from:
This purpose of this study is to develop software for improving web usability and blind user’s productivity called Accessibility Designer. The authors describe the factors that become problems beyond the software development which are accessibility checker, requirement of guidelines compliance, and syntactic checking of web page. For overcoming the problems, the author develop a new software that has three fundamental features: background color pattern for presenting reaching time to each part a web page, color filling analysis for indicating accessibility particular area of a web page, and visual layout analysis using text information that generated by standard screen reader. This new software is expected to improve usability of a web page.

In the use, the author found that the background-color-based analysis has the power to reveal several problems such as availability and appropriateness skip-links navigator, availability and appropriateness of  headings usage, and content order. The result of the analysis will contribute to development of web design that may decrease the time and cost maintenance, determine web usability even for high level accessibility, achieve real accessible and usable website by focusing on the user experience and actual productivity.

Even tough this article is technical oriented and focus on usability for user with visual impaired, but it has valuable knowledge for improving accessibility and usability of information displayed on a web page.

Reading 9

Villegas, E., Sorribas, X., Pifarr, M., & Fonseca, D. (2009). Improving the design of accessible web pages through a study of user experience in order to define requirements. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMM international workshop on Media studies and implementations that help improving access to disabled users. Retrieved from
The authors’ purpose is to compare the two study phases of web accessibility that are based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2.0 which level AA (double A) is a level acceptance in Spanish Law. The first phase is analyzing several Spanish AA-certified websites in order to collect the pattern of user accessibility defined by user (people with disabilities) requirements. Result from the first phased becomes guidance for group task-based test in second phase for determining the satisfactory of accessibility a web page creation.

This study found that obtaining an accessible experience in the first step leads to the creation of a web page with real accessibility which is not only compliance with the WCAG guidelines, but also “a requirement to provide the user with a satisfactory user experience and to enable the user to work autonomously” (p.5).

Although this study is only involved 12 students with disability, but this article is a good example for creating and analyzing web page that accessible for person with disabilities. Perhaps world class study involved various type students with disabilities would be better to evaluate the latest Web Content Accessibility Guidelines and the result might give some recommendation the web builders to create the real accessible websites.

Reading 8

Rose, D., Hall, T., & Murray, E. (2008). Accurate for All: Universal Design for Learning and the Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 34(4), 23-28. Retrieved from
This article explorers the implementation of three principles of universal design for learning in the assessment of students with learning disabilities. The authors state relevant constructs of the instrument and full spectrum of students is the keys to make sure the assessment is accountable and accurate for all students.

The first principle elucidates by the authors is that flexible formats and options of assessment can be generated by modern technology, even it can be determined by individual basis of learning disabilities, so that the information in the assessment can be accessed by all the students. The second one is that assessment should be able completed by any kind of response from various students with disabilities. Thus other supports are needed for preparing and organizing responses such as assistive technology for completing the assessment. The last one is that validity of assessment should be achieved by maximum engagement of the students. For making sure students with learning disabilities have maximum level of engagement, they should be motivated to concentrate to the assessment and ignore other activities when the time has come. If the treatment of external motivating condition is considered not adequate for accountability assessment, then we have to consistent with the implementation of previous principle which is providing options and alternatives of testing and engagement conditions.

Although the article is focus on the assessment of students with learning disabilities in the face-to-face context, the assessment concepts are valuable to be implemented in the on line learning environment for students with disabilities by occupying various modalities of assessment.

Reading 7

Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A Curriculum Every Student Can Use: Design Principles for Student Access. ERIC/OSEP Topical Brief (055 Guides: Non-Classroom; 071 ERIC Publications): Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Orkwis and McLane explore some issues in universal design for learning which are related to accessibility of general education curriculum for students with disabilities. The authors describe universal design for learning as generating learning materials and activities in the flexible curriculum which provide alternative options for students with various abilities and background.

The authors also complement the report with two figures for illustrating universal design for learning. The first figure illustrates the differences between universal design for product or environment and universal design for learning. The second one illustrates about three essential qualities of universal design for learning which are representation, expression, and engagement.

Even tough it is a quite old monograph, I really agree that universal design in the notion of learning means “learning materials, instructions, and activities that make learning objectives can be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember” (p.10). This concept works not only accommodate various students with physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities, but also various abilities, culture and language backgrounds, and learning approaches.