# Accessible Website

Here are some examples of accessible website:
Sample of simple and consistent navigation

Takagi, H., Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., & Maeda, J. (2004). Accessibility designer: Visualizing Usability for the Blind. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility. Retrieved from: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1028630.1028662
This purpose of this study is to develop software for improving web usability and blind user’s productivity called Accessibility Designer. The authors describe the factors that become problems beyond the software development which are accessibility checker, requirement of guidelines compliance, and syntactic checking of web page. For overcoming the problems, the author develop a new software that has three fundamental features: background color pattern for presenting reaching time to each part a web page, color filling analysis for indicating accessibility particular area of a web page, and visual layout analysis using text information that generated by standard screen reader. This new software is expected to improve usability of a web page.

In the use, the author found that the background-color-based analysis has the power to reveal several problems such as availability and appropriateness skip-links navigator, availability and appropriateness of  headings usage, and content order. The result of the analysis will contribute to development of web design that may decrease the time and cost maintenance, determine web usability even for high level accessibility, achieve real accessible and usable website by focusing on the user experience and actual productivity.

Even tough this article is technical oriented and focus on usability for user with visual impaired, but it has valuable knowledge for improving accessibility and usability of information displayed on a web page.

Villegas, E., Sorribas, X., Pifarr, M., & Fonseca, D. (2009). Improving the design of accessible web pages through a study of user experience in order to define requirements. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMM international workshop on Media studies and implementations that help improving access to disabled users. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1631097.1631099
The authors’ purpose is to compare the two study phases of web accessibility that are based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2.0 which level AA (double A) is a level acceptance in Spanish Law. The first phase is analyzing several Spanish AA-certified websites in order to collect the pattern of user accessibility defined by user (people with disabilities) requirements. Result from the first phased becomes guidance for group task-based test in second phase for determining the satisfactory of accessibility a web page creation.

This study found that obtaining an accessible experience in the first step leads to the creation of a web page with real accessibility which is not only compliance with the WCAG guidelines, but also “a requirement to provide the user with a satisfactory user experience and to enable the user to work autonomously” (p.5).

Although this study is only involved 12 students with disability, but this article is a good example for creating and analyzing web page that accessible for person with disabilities. Perhaps world class study involved various type students with disabilities would be better to evaluate the latest Web Content Accessibility Guidelines and the result might give some recommendation the web builders to create the real accessible websites.

Rose, D., Hall, T., & Murray, E. (2008). Accurate for All: Universal Design for Learning and the Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 34(4), 23-28. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url= http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1639898021&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD
This article explorers the implementation of three principles of universal design for learning in the assessment of students with learning disabilities. The authors state relevant constructs of the instrument and full spectrum of students is the keys to make sure the assessment is accountable and accurate for all students.

The first principle elucidates by the authors is that flexible formats and options of assessment can be generated by modern technology, even it can be determined by individual basis of learning disabilities, so that the information in the assessment can be accessed by all the students. The second one is that assessment should be able completed by any kind of response from various students with disabilities. Thus other supports are needed for preparing and organizing responses such as assistive technology for completing the assessment. The last one is that validity of assessment should be achieved by maximum engagement of the students. For making sure students with learning disabilities have maximum level of engagement, they should be motivated to concentrate to the assessment and ignore other activities when the time has come. If the treatment of external motivating condition is considered not adequate for accountability assessment, then we have to consistent with the implementation of previous principle which is providing options and alternatives of testing and engagement conditions.

Although the article is focus on the assessment of students with learning disabilities in the face-to-face context, the assessment concepts are valuable to be implemented in the on line learning environment for students with disabilities by occupying various modalities of assessment.

Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A Curriculum Every Student Can Use: Design Principles for Student Access. ERIC/OSEP Topical Brief (055 Guides: Non-Classroom; 071 ERIC Publications): Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Orkwis and McLane explore some issues in universal design for learning which are related to accessibility of general education curriculum for students with disabilities. The authors describe universal design for learning as generating learning materials and activities in the flexible curriculum which provide alternative options for students with various abilities and background.

The authors also complement the report with two figures for illustrating universal design for learning. The first figure illustrates the differences between universal design for product or environment and universal design for learning. The second one illustrates about three essential qualities of universal design for learning which are representation, expression, and engagement.

Even tough it is a quite old monograph, I really agree that universal design in the notion of learning means “learning materials, instructions, and activities that make learning objectives can be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember” (p.10). This concept works not only accommodate various students with physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities, but also various abilities, culture and language backgrounds, and learning approaches.

Harris, C. R., Kaff, M. S., Anderson, M. J., & Knackendoffel, A. (2007). Designing Flexible INSTRUCTION. Principal Leadership, 7(9), 31-35. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1277145451&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD8

This monograph describes the implementation of universal design for learning that should be based on flexible-designed instruction. The selective use of flexible pedagogy are implemented to incorporate flexibility into instructional planning for accommodating the various learning needs of the students in the classroom. The authors complement the concept of universal design for learning with several testimonies of  students who either have or have not special needs.

The author also points out a framework for instructional planning which the principal should build strong foundation based on principles of universal design for learning since in the beginning rather than retrofitting instructions to meet the needs of students with disabilities later and should manage collaboration of general teachers and special education teachers for making sure the curriculum works for a wide range abilities and disabilities of the students.

Although this article elucidates the instructional design in the classroom setting, the flexible-designed instruction also should be applied in the online setting so that the online learning environment rich of flexible modalities.

Hitchcock, C., & Stahl, S. (2003). Assistive Technology, Universal Design, Universal Design for Learning: Improved Learning Opportunities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4), 45-52. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=569989481&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD

In this article, Hitchcock and Stahl points out about developing and implementing of a universal designed curriculum by considering the goals of learning material, the instructional method, and the learning assessment.

The article also elucidates the barriers to access and learning that amplified with some analogies of universal design that make definition and principle of universal design can be applied as well as appropriate use of assistive technology in the educational learning environment. In addition the authors make a table comparison of traditional approach and emerging approach of universal design for learning principles that exposes ten factors that influence teaching and learning process for achieving learning goals in the respective learning environment.

I strongly agree that the best practice of universal design for learning which will support the achievement of all students can be implemented by providing: (a) suitable learning and activities objectives, (b) flexible and supportive electronic learning materials and its assistive technology for access and learning, (c) flexible and various format of challenges and supports, and (d) flexible and accessible assessment.

Eberle, J. H., & Childress, M. D. (2007). Universal Design for Culturally-Diverse Online Learning. In A. Edmundson (Ed.), Globalizing E-Learning Cultural Challenges (pp. 239-254). Retrieved from http://www.igi-global.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/Gateway/ContentOwned/Chapter.aspx?TitleId=19304&AccessType=InfoSci
In this book chapter, Eberle and Childress use the principle of universal design for learning (UDL) to point out the framework for online learning design in the culturally-diverse population and global learning. The authors suggest that for designing UDL-based instruction which accommodate various type of learning in a flexible and systematic way, the principles of universal design can be implemented learning to the six steps of dynamic instructional design (DID).

The authors also point out the characteristics and factors of learner that should be considered for online learning environment that accommodate various differences based on “clientele identification, abilities/disabilities, language, culture, gender, time barriers, and technology” (p.246).

This reading is a good source for implementing universal design for learning in the instructional design that sensitive to culturally diverse in the global context so that online learning environment will become more globally inclusive for heterogenic populations, regardless of language, culture, abilities, and gender, time barriers, and technology.

Sapp, W. (2009). Universal Design: Online Educational Media for Students with Disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(8), 495-500. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1862973271&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Sapp discusses the implementation of universal design learning using Universal eLearning, which is an under development project of integrated online learning module which are compiling accessible technology, universal design for learning principles, and the best practice of online learning.

The author also elucidates about Universal eLearner system that has incorporated four new features, namely two-tiered video captioning for students with hearing impairment, two-tiered audio description for students with visual impairment, end-of-chapter summary information for supporting the comprehension of students with range of learning and sensory disabilities, and description-embedded language for increasing understandability of the content. Those new features can be set on or off by either students or teachers for making sure students not only can access the online course, but also can understand the contents. Thus the learning goals can be achieved by individuals with range disabilities.

Even though the article just discusses several new features in a universal-designed online learning, but it is very valuable knowledge about how to increase access and understanding of students with disabilities in the notion of flexible online learning.

Palloff, R. M, & Pratt, K. (2001). The Art of Online Teaching. Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching (pp. 20-36). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://cemmx.educ.monash.edu.au/moodle/file.php/4/docs/ Palloff_Pratt_2001.pdf

Palloff and Pratt purpose several factors that should be considered for shifting face-to-face learning to online learning such as determining who should teach online which influenced by characteristics and willingness of instructor, conducting training for trainers or instructors before order them into design and delivery (electronic pedagogy), instructors involvement which is important to achieve a successful learning outcome instead of students engagement.

Besides those factors, the authors elucidates the keys to success for online learning which are determining of technology access and familiarity, setting of relative loose and free flowing rules which are generated from participants’ input, gaining maximum engagement of participants with the best effort, encouraging participants for collaborative learning, and developing reflection system for participants. At the end of the authors provide "Tips for a Successful Online Course" (p. 36).

This is very good reading for understanding how to establish and manage online leaning environment, so that the online course not only converting face-to-face leaning material to digital format, but also reach with sources, activities, and evaluation to achieving learning goals.

Collis, B. & Moonen, J. (2002). Flexible Learning in a Digital World. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 17(3), 217-230. DOI: 10.1080/0268051022000048228
Collis and Moonen elucidate the flexible learning that has four keys components in the higher education context which are technology, pedagogy, implementation strategies, and institutional framework. The authors define the term of flexible learning is not merely as distance learning, but it is used in a broad way that allow the learner to choose different aspects of learning experiences is the key idea. In the most of the explanation, the authors try to define real flexible learning in the terms of institutional framework. Thus flexible learning can be realized by implementing strategy in the institution, making pedagogical approaches become learning value, and occupying technology to enhance flexibility.

The authors also explain about lessons learned series from previous cycle of education change and technology potential. The authors state that a well-design web based system is appropriate technology for flexible learning if it has wide range possibilities and contribution-oriented learning. Indeed, usability and accessibility of WWW-based system are key point for flexible learning in the online learning environment.

Even tough the authors explain the flexible learning in the notion of higher education, but its principles can be implemented in the either level or field of education, including special education needs.

# Open Caption Video

Sample of open caption video

The embedded subtitle can not be interactively changed. It is fixed.

# Closed Captioning (CC) Video

The feature of closed caption (CC) can be adjusted by clicking CC icon and there are settings:
1. Type of Font
2. Background (short cut b)
3. Size  (short cut + / -)

Moodle Closed Caption Video
By default, Moodle does not provide video captioning. Flv player addition based on JW FLV Player 4.3 can be installed to provide closed video caption. Here are the screen shots installed closed caption in the local server using USB WebServer 7.0 and moodle 1.9.8+:
Closed caption feature is off

Closed caption feature is on

Sources:
Moodle.(2009) FLV Player. Retrieved 5 April, 2010, from http://docs.moodle.org/en/FLV_Player

# Equation Editor in HTML Environment

Sample: $\sum_{i=1}^{n}{(X_i - \overline{X})^2}$
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# Writing Equation in Blogger using LaTeX - Mathtex3.js

• Using WYSIWYG Equation editor and Mathtex3.js for Beginner User
Creating LaTeX renderer for Blogger
For inserting an equation to a posting in a simple way, we need to make sure that LaTeX code can be rendered in the blog. Please follow the steps bellow:
- Copy (to clipboard) the following script using block and ctrl-c

<script src="http://www.watchmath.com/cgi-bin/mathtex3.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
replaceMath( document.body );</script>



- Add a HTML/Script footer Gadget by accessing your Dashboard and choose Layout>>Page Element, and then click the hyperlink Add a Gadget in the bottom of the layout, followed by selecting HTML/JavaScript gadget. In the popup windows paste the script which is copied before, so that it is like the picure bellow:
Click save with out typing any title. Then save the Page Elements.

Creating WYSIWYG Equation Editor
Latex code is quite complex to remember because it is like programming script. Since we prefer works in the GUI environment, we need WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) Equation Editor. The steps bellow will show you how to make a Blogger Gadget for equation editor:
- Copy the following script:

<script type="text/javascript" src="http://latex.codecogs.com/editor.js"></script>
<p align="center" style="margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0"><font face="Arial">
Sample:
<a href="javascript:OpenLatexEditor('testbox','latex','')">
<img src="http://www.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\sum_{i=1}^{n}{(X_i - \overline{X})^2}"
align="middle" /></a></font></p>
<p align="center" style="margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0"><b><font face="Arial">
<a href="javascript:OpenLatexEditor('testbox','latex','')">
Launch
Editor</a></font></b></p>
<p align="center" style="margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0">
<textarea id="testbox" rows="10" cols="20"></textarea></p>
<p align="center" style="margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0">
<a href="http://www.codecogs.com" target="_blank">
<img src="http://www.codecogs.com/images/poweredbycc.gif" border="0"
title="CodeCogs - An Open Source Scientific Library"
alt="CodeCogs - An Open Source Scientific Library" /></a>
<p style="margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0" align="center"><font size="1"><font face="Arial">
<a href="http://a2mstats.blogspot.com/">Aam Sudrajat</a></font> </font>
</p>



- Paste the copied script in the content, and you can give Equation Editor as the Title.
- Save the gadget and the Page Elements.

Inserting LaTeX code in a Posting
Because the equation editor is not embedded in the posting editor, we should keep the page contained it and open a new window/tab for creating/editing a posting. Then follow these steps:
- Open Equation Editor by clicking the Lauch Editor link.

- Create an equation by click the symbol or samples of equation

- Click Copy to Document, the the windows will directly change to the main page where the equation editor gadget is.

- Copy the code from the box by blocking and copying
- Paste the code to the posting editor either in Compose or Edit HTML mode.
$x = a_0 + \frac{1}{a_1 + \frac{1}{a_2 + \frac{1}{a_3 + a_4}}}$

• Using Mathtex3.js for Advanced User
Basically all the $L^{A}T_{E}X$ code can be used in a posting after adding a HTML/Script footer Gadget containing Mathtex3.js. You may read Short Math Guide for LATEX  for looking up the type set.Here some example codes:

\frac{{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{n> 0} z^n}}{{\displaystyle\prod\nolimits_{1\leq k\leq n} (1-q^k)}}

$\frac{{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{n> 0} z^n}}{{\displaystyle\prod\nolimits_{1\leq k\leq n} (1-q^k)}}$

V = \frac{k_2{[E]}+{[S]}}{K_m + {[S]}}}
$V = \frac{k_2{[E]}+{[S]}}{K_m + {[S]}}$

6CO_2 + 6H_2O \xrightarrow{Light Energy} C_6H_{12}O_6 + CO_2 \ \delta G^{\circ} = +2870kJ/mol
$6CO_2 + 6H_2O \xrightarrow{Light Energy} C_6H_{12}O_6 + CO_2 \ \delta G^{\circ} = +2870kJ/mol$

Sources:
Codecog (2009). LaTeX Equation Editor v2.96 Installation. Retrieved 15 April, 2010, from http://www.codecogs.com/latex/install.php

Downes, M. (2002). Short Math Guide for LATEX. Retrieved 15 April, 2010, from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/short-math-guide.pdf

WatchMath (2010). How To Install Latex On Blogger/Blogspot. Retrieved 15 April, 2010, from http://watchmath.com/vlog/?p=438
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# LaTeX Parameter for Position Adjustment in Ning.com

Inserting LaTeX using <img src="http://www.codecogs.com/gif.latex?copy_paste_here"/> should be treated as image because we use image tags for HTML ( <img .../>).

There are several parameters that can be use for position adjustment:

 Parameter Value Using Example Output align align="top" Sample $\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$text middle align="middle" Sample $\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$ text bottom align="bottom" Sample $\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$ text border 0 border="0" <img src="http://www.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\frac{x-\mu }{\sigma }" align="middle" border ="1"> Sample $\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$text 1 border="1" width % or pixel width="10"width ="100%" <img src="http://www.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\frac{x-\mu }{\sigma }" align="middle" height ="40" width="70"> Sample$\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$ text height % or pixel height="20"height ="90%" hspace % or pixel hspace="5"hspace ="5%" Sample$\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$text vspace % or pixel vspace="10"vspace ="10%"

Resource:
W3C (n.d). 13 Objects, Images, and Applets. Retrieved 16 April, 2010, from http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40
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# Writing Equation using LaTeX code at Ning.com

Ning.com does not provide $L^{A}T_{E}X$ renderer like wikipedia or any other CMS for creating equation such as:
$\frac{d}{dx}\sin x=\cos x$

We can use LaTeX source from another WYSIWYG LaTeX editor and copy-paste into blog or Forum in HTML mode. Follow the steps bellow:

Because we use external WYSIWYG equation editor, then it is not embedded in the posting editor, we should open the equation editor and the entry blog/posting editor in the different windows/tabs. Then follow these steps:
1. Open WYSIWYG Equation Editor in a new window/tab.

2. Create an equation by click the symbl or samples of equation

3. Click Copy to Document, the the windows will directly change to the page where the WYSIWYG equation editor is.
4. Copy the code from the box by blocking and copying
5. Paste the code to the posting editor either in Compose or Edit HTML mode.

6. Then you change to Rich Text mode again, and you will see:
$x = a_0 + \frac{1}{a_1 + \frac{1}{a_2 + \frac{1}{a_3 + a_4}}}$

7. If you come back to HTML editor and want to change the equation, you will see the script has been changed. It is recommended to repeat the steps 1-6.

Basically all the $L^{A}T_{E}X$ code can be used in a posting . We can read Short Math Guide for LATEX  for looking up the type set.Here some example codes:

\frac{{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{n> 0} z^n}}{{\displaystyle\prod\nolimits_{1\leq k\leq n} (1-q^k)}}

$\frac{{\displaystyle\sum\nolimits_{n> 0} z^n}}{{\displaystyle\prod\nolimits_{1\leq k\leq n} (1-q^k)}}$

V = \frac{k_2{[E]}+{[S]}}{K_m + {[S]}}}
$V = \frac{k_2{[E]}+{[S]}}{K_m + {[S]}}$

6CO_2 + 6H_2O \xrightarrow{Light Energy} C_6H_{12}O_6 + CO_2 \ \delta G^{\circ} = +2870kJ/mol
$6CO_2 + 6H_2O \xrightarrow{Light Energy} C_6H_{12}O_6 + CO_2 \ \delta G^{\circ} = +2870kJ/mol$

Sources:
Codecog (2010). LaTeX Equation Editor v2.96 Installation. Retrieved 15 April, 2010, from http://www.codecogs.com/latex/install.php

Downes, M. (2002. Short Math Guide for LATEX. Retrieved 15 April, 2010, from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/short-math-guide.pdf
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# Temporary Summary

Reaching the limit of words, I have to summarize the previous exploration. Universal design for online, especially involving students with disabilities that make sure as flexible as can the learning and teaching process throughout internet should be supported by accessible and usable course design. Accessible course design can be achieved by implementing web accessibility guidelines, then web usability principles adaptation is needed for making sure the learning objective is achievable by various students with disability,.

There are still many web accessibility and web usability aspects which have not been explored, such as table, forms, interactivity. They will be continued to explore along with universal design curriculum as the backbone of the universal design for learning
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# 9. Multimedia Accessibility

Multimedia contents such as video, images, and sounds give flexibility presentation of learning material. For making sure multimedia contents accessible, they should be occupied with caption, audio description or alternative text (W3C,2008). Video captioning is creating text version of the spoken word in the video.

There are two type of video captioning which are open caption that is permanently embedded to the video, and closed caption that is can be set on/off by teachers or students. Audio description is information that allow student with visual impairment hear the visual content (Web Accessibility in Mind, n.d). Sometimes the video caption and audio description are made in two tiers for different cognitive ability like in the eLearner system (Sapp, 2009). Accessible images can be made by adding alternative text or alt-text for describing the content and function, instead of image appearance Web Accessibility in Mind (2009).

Sapp, W. (2009). Universal Design: Online Educational Media for Students with Disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(8), 495-500.Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1862973271&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD
W3C. (2008). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Retrieved 16 March, 2010, from http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/.
Web Accessibility in Mind (n.d). Web Captioning Overview. Retrieved 12 April, 2010, from http://www.webaim.org/techniques/captions/.
Web Accessibility in Mind (2009). Quick Reference: Web Accessibility Principles. Retrieved 8 April, 2010, from http://www.webaim.org/resources/quickref/quickref.pdf
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# 8. PDF Accessibility

According to Web Accessibility in Mind (2009) the HTML document format is the most accessible document format, but sometimes we need to add another document format such as PDF and office document. Thus we have to ensure that non-HTML document should be accessible. Since PDF is commonly used and secure, thus we often use this format for transferring information with original format intact. Unfortunately, standard PDF format is not recognized by World Wide Web Consortium (Hudson, 2004). PDF file can be accessible, especially by screen reader, by adding xml-like tag that gives content structure (Clark, 2005).

Converting PDF files become accessible is not an easy thing to do because it takes long time since the steps are complicated for the beginner (Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2004). That is enough for document format.

The next exploration will be the multimedia accessibility.

Adobe Systems Incorporated .(2004). Advanced Techniques for Creating Accessible Adobe PDF Files: A Guide for Document Creator. Retrieved 9 April, 2010, from http://www.adobe.com/enterprise/accessibility/pdfs/acro6_pg_ue.pdf.
Clark J. (2005). Fact and Oppinion about PDF Accessibility. Retrieved 9 April, 2010, from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/pdf_accessibility.
Hudson R. (2004). PDF and Accessibility. Retrieved 9 April, 2010, from http://www.usability.com.au/resources/pdf.cfm.
Web Accessibility in Mind (2009). Quick Reference: Web Accessibility Principles. Retrieved 8 April, 2010, from http://www.webaim.org/resources/quickref/quickref.pdf.
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# 7. Font for Accessible Website

Firstly, I think text formatting, especially fonts matter, is quite simple to write. Then when I have read an article about fonts in the notion of web accessibility by Web Accessibility in Mind (n.d.), I found that fonts matter is not as simple as choosing the size and the type of the fonts. It will take along writing for exploring the fonts in its details, thus these are some important point:
• Real text is better than graphical text because it can be enlarged with out pixel lost and compatible with screen reader.
• Basic, simple, easily-readable font families commonly used by web developer are the good choice to make a website content readable in any computer platform and browser.
• Limited number of fonts will make a web content looks tidy and easy to read.
• Contrast between the text and the background should be sufficiently set.
• Standard font sizes for reading.
• Units for font size should be relative (% or ems) to make sure it resizable by browser control. For some CMS it is embedded to the paragraph style.
• Font variation such as bold, italics, and ALL CAPITAL LETTERS should be limited to make the content looks tidy.
• Font appearance (color, shape, font variation, placement, etc.) should not convey any meaning.
• Blinking or moving text is not accessible.

Before continue to the text formatting, I just remember PARC principles that Michael Henderson mention in his paper titled Content Design for Online Learning (Henderson & Henderson, 2006). Indeed, the heading usage is one of the methods of for creating proximity and repetition of the content. Moreover, combination of font setting, contrast adjustment and appropriate alignment setting increase web content usability.

The next exploration will not continue about text formatting, but accessible document format.

Henderson, M. & Henderson, L. (2006). Content Design for Online Learning. QUICK: Journal of the Queensland Society for Information Technology in Education, 99(Winter). pp.3-8. Retrieved from http://cemmx.educ.monash.edu.au/moodle/mod/resource/view.php?id=81
Web Accessibility in Mind (n.d.) Fonts. Retrieved 5 April, 2010, from http://www.webaim.org/techniques/fonts/
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# 6. Web Content Structure

I will continue my exploration in the web usability. According to Nielsen (1997) in his research on how people read website, there are only 16% read a website word by word and 79 % of people just scan the web page. Thus the web site contents should be well structured and clearly written, inevitably sighted students with cognitive disabilities or with low literacy. Here are some principles that can be applied for structuring web contents (National Center on Disabilities and Access to Education, 2007):
• Headings for organizing content that will make a content easy to read and navigate
• Simple language and Active voice usage for making sure students with cognitive disabilities understand
• Slang and Jargon avoidance for making sure students with cognitive disabilities are not confused.
• Empty (white) space for improving readability
• Illustration as text supplementary
• Spelling and grammar checking
I thing that is enough for web site layout exploration, I will continue my text-formatting exploration in the next time.

National Center on Disabilities and Access to Education. (2007). NCDAE Tips and Tools: Principles of Accessible Design. Retrieved 5 April, 2010, from http://www.ncdae.org/tools/factsheets/principles.cfm
Nielsen, J. (1997). How Users Read on the Web. Retrieved 3 April, 2010, from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html
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# 5. Website Layout for Students with Visual Impairment

After reviewing web accessibility and web usability guidelines, there are so many web-accessibility guidelines involving the complicated programming language for shifting from web accessibility to the web usability. Indeed if a web is universally usable then, of course, it is universally accessible. I will focus on web layout, text formatting, document format, and multimedia presentation in this short exploration.

I will put this exploration of website layout for students with visual impairment here because it will take a long exploration if I continue this one. In the next exploration I will investigate about web usability for sighted students with disabilities.

Mahmud, J., Borodin, Y., Das, D., & Ramakrishnan, I. V. (2007). Combating information overload in non-visual web access using context. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1216295.1216362.
Takagi, H., Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., & Maeda, J. (2004). Accessibility designer: visualizing usability for the blind. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility.Retrieved from: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1028630.1028662
W3C. (2008). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Retrieved 16 March, 2010, from http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211.
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# 4. Web Accessibility and Universal Usability

After reviewing the last exploration, I just realized that universal design learning creates flexible learning because it allows the learners to choose different aspects of learning experiences is the key idea (Collis & Moonen, 2002).

Now is the time to answer last question. When online learning environment is chosen for conducting flexible learning and students with disabilities have opportunity involve in it, there are several issues regarding accessibility and usability of the course design. I believe that it will be a long answer and more than one exploration session.

Web Accessibility Initiatives (WAI) has been developing Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), which the latest version is 2.0 (W3C, 2008) that more usability oriented (Termen et al, 2009) than the WCAG 1.0. The older version has been revised because low vision and with reduced mobility are practically ignored (Ribera et al., 2009). In addition Nielsen (2005) state “accessibility is not enough” because accessibility is focus primarily to make all users with various diversity can access the content and functionality of a website, and it does not guarantee make them understand. So that Horton (2006, para. 2) stated that universal usability is one step ahead which makes “the content and functionality accessible and usable by all”. May be its too long for an exploration entry. I will continue about website accessibility and usability in the next exploration.

Nielsen, J. (2005). Accessibility Is Not Enough. Retrieved 3 April, 2010, from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/accessibility.html.
Ribera, M., Porras, M., Boldu, M., Termens, M., Sule, A., & Paris, P. (2009). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0: A Further Step towards Accessible Digital Information. Program: Electronic Library & Information Systems, 43(4), 392-406. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00330330910998048
Termens, M., Ribera, M., Porras, M., Boldu, M., Sule, A., & Paris, P. (2009). Web content accessibility guidelines: from 1.0 to 2.0. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1526709.1526912
W3C. (1999). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0. Retrieved 16 March, 2010, from http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/
W3C. (2008). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Retrieved 16 March, 2010, from http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/
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# 3. Universal Desing for Learning (UDL)

Indeed, I found that the researcher of CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) the parallelism their curriculum and UD concept and then they defined the term universal design for learning (UDL) in 1990 (Rose, 2000) that has three principles (Rose, 2001 and CAST, 2008):
1. flexible ways to present information
2. flexible ways for expression and actions
3. flexible ways for student engagement
Those principles come with some guidelines so that a curriculum can be designed for supporting all individuals with equal opportunities to learn. Thus universal design in the notion of learning means “learning materials, instructions, and activities that make learning objectives can be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember” (Orkwis & McLane, 1998, p.10). Finally, I understand the UDL and its principles, but one big question is waiting to be answered: How can it be implemented, especially in the online learning? In the next exploration I should find the answer.

CAST. (2008). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 1.0. Retrieved 25 March, 2010, from http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_v2%200-Organizer_0.pdf
David, R. (2001). Universal design for learning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 16(2), 66. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.monash. edu.au/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=106940284&Fmt=7&clientId=16397&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A Curriculum Every Student Can Use: Design Principles for Student Access. ERIC/OSEP Topical Brief (055 Guides: Non-Classroom; 071 ERIC Publications): Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
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# 2. Universal Design

Continuing my last exploration about principles of universal design, I found that there are seven principles of universal design which are: equitable use; flexibility in use; simple and intuitive; perceptible information; tolerance for error; low physical effort; and size and space for approach and use (Story, Mueller & Mace, 1998). Each of principle comes with several guidelines as the key elements that should be present in a design which adheres to it. I believe that those principles can be adapted to the education field or learning. In the next exploration I will investigate about universal design for learning including its definition, principles, and implementation.

Story, M. F., Mueller, J. L., & Mace, R. L. (1998). The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages and Abilities. Revised Edition (055 Guides: Non-Classroom; 141 Reports: Descriptive): National Inst. on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
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# 1 - The Begining of Exploration

In the cloud of information and communication technology in education, I am interested in special education needs. Thus my exploration in learning, instructional design, and technology will be in the shadows of this education field. Universal design principles have been adopting in the education field, which is called universal design for learning (UDL).

Talking about universal design, I am wondering about its history, principles and how it can be implemented in the education field. Having research for universal design, I found that the term universal design (UD) was coined by Ronald L. Mace in 1987 (Moore, 2007). The concept of universal design is “usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design” (The Center for Universal Design, n.d, para.1). In the next exploration I will continue to research about UD principles.

Moore, S.(2007, 20 March 2010). Very Brief History of Universal Design. Retrieved from http://www.unco.edu/cetl/UDL/WhatIs/index.html.
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# Table of Universal Design Principles

 NO Principle Brief Explanation Guidelines 1 Equitable Use The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not.  Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users.  Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users.  Make the design appealing to all users. 2 Flexibility in Use The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities Provide choice in methods of use. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. Provide adaptability to the user's pace. 3 Simple and intuitive Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level Eliminateunnecessary complexity. Be  consistent with user expectations and intuition. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. Arrange information consistent with its importance. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion. 4 Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. Maximize "legibility" of essential information. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations. 5 Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. Provide warnings of hazards and errors. Provide fail safe features. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance. 6 Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. Use reasonable operating forces. Minimize repetitive actions. Minimize sustained physical effort 7 Size and Space for Approach and Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.

Story, M. F., Mueller, J. L., & Mace, R. L. (1998). The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages and Abilities. Revised Edition (055) Guides: Non-Classroom; 141 Reports: Descriptive): National Inst. on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.

# TeX Testing in Blogger

a^2+b^2=c^2


$a^2+b^2=c^2$
$x = a_0 + \frac{1}{a_1 + \frac{1}{a_2 + \frac{1}{a_3 + a_4}}}$
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